More detailed biographies of some of the composers mentioned on other pages. (See References page for sources).

Hugh Aston 
English composer (c1485 - 1558) graduated Bachelor of Music at Oxford in 1510 and worked as master of the choristers at St Mary Newarke College, Leicester from 1525-1548. He wrote choral music and is probably author of three (for the time) innovative keyboard pieces, certainly the Hornepype (found in a MS in the British Museum) and probably My Lady Careys Dompe and The Short Mesure off my Lady Wynkfyld's Rownde (sic).

John Dowland

Tobias Hume 
English composer and viol player (c1579-1645). A somewhat unusual figure, he was a professional soldier who served as an officer in the Swedish and Russian armies, and a viol player who published two important volumes of music, principally for the Lyra Viol. According to a BBC Radio 3 broadcast series on the music of the court of King James, he was an a favourite of James Stewart at the time he was Scottish king (James VI), though Rossi (2008) suggests that the connection was with James’s wife Queen Anne (Anna of Denmark). Hume championed the cause of the Lyra Viol in his writings, to an extent that prompted John Dowland to publish a rebuttal (this exchange is described in my dissertation on the lyra viol (Crouch 2012 p 14). Hume was also something of a musical joker, with unusual compositions such as the Princes Almayne (below) which was "an Invention for Two to Play upone one Viole". Two bows are required and the smaller of the two players is obliged to sit in the lap of the larger player. His instructions to "drum this with the backe of your bow" in another piece, "Harke, harke," constitute the earliest known use of ‘col legno’.

Tobias Hume wrote of himself (in what would now, I suppose, be called an artist’s statement):
“I Doe not studie Eloquence, or profess Musicke, although I doe love Sence, and affect Harmony: my Profession being, as my Education hath beene, Armes, the onely effeminate part of me, hath beene Musicke; which in mee hath beene alwayes Generous, because never Mercenarie. To prayse Musicke, were to say, the Sunne is bright. To extoll my selfe, would name my labors vaine glorious. Onely this, mu studies are far from servile imitations, I robbe no others inventions, I take no Italian Note to an English dittie, or filch fragments of Songs to stuffe out my volumes. There are mine own Phansies expressed by my proper Genius, which if thou dost dislike, let me see thine, Carpere vel noli nostra, vel ede tua, Now to use a modest shortnes, and a briefe expression of my seffe to all noble spirites, thus, My title expresseth my Bookes Contents, which (if my Hopes faile me not) shall not deceive their expectation, in whose approvement the crowne of my labors resteth. And from henceforth, the stateful instrument Gambo Violl shall with ease yeelde full various and as devicefull Musicke as the Lute. For here I protest the Trinitie of Musicke, parts, Passion and Division, to be as gracefully united in the Gambo Violl, as in the most received Instrument that is, which here with a Souldiers Resolution, I give up to the acceptance of at noble dispositions.”

The suggestion has been made that the character of Sir Andrew Aguecheek in Shakespeare’s Twelfth Night is based on Tobias Hume. The following text appears in a couple of places, and I’m not sure who originated the idea:

“Could we then resist the temptation to find in this eccentric character the original (in both senses of the term) of Sir Andrew Aguecheek from Twelfth Night--A grand pint-quaffer, who was as cowardly as he was quarrelsome, played the "viol de Gambo","spoke three or four Languages word for word without book", swore like a pagan, and sang canons in the wildest fashion: such was our captain, as immortalized by his contemporary Shakespeare--"which, who so please may believe, who like not may leave...."

This idea is intriguing but lacks some credibility as Twelfth Night was probably written around 1601 - 2 when Hume would only have been in his early twenties, whereas Aguecheek is generally played as a much older man.



Tobias Hume. THE FIRST PART of Ayres...(1605).

Tobias Hume. CAPTAINE HVME’S Poeticall Musicke... (1607). 

Hume, T., (1605) The First Part of Ayres, London, Online facsimile , Available from Early English Books Online, (Accessed February 7, 2012) 

Thomas Mace

Thomas Mace (c1612 - c1706) was a musician who spent most of his very long life in Cambridge occupying a modest position as “a singing man” at Trinity College. He is chiefly remembered for his book Musick’s Monument: or a Remembrancer of the Best Practical Musick, published in 1676. This is a treatise on music making in which Mace looks back to music making in the reign of Charles I (he was himself a Royalist) a time at which he believed music had reached a level of perfection. The book covers church music, lute music, music in general and the viol. The lute section, entitled The Lute Made Easie, is essentially a lute tutor dealing with technique, stringing, maintenance etc and including a set of instructional suites.

Even a superficial reading of this book suggests that he was a person of some eccentricity; this is somewhat borne out by his two other publications which were: The Profit, Conveniency and Pleasure for the Whole Nation: being a short rational Discourse lately presented to his Majesty concerning the Highways of England (1625) and Riddles, Mervels and Rarities, or, A New Way of Health from an Old Man’s Experience (1698). 

Nevertheless his music, if not the greatest of its time, has great charm and energy and much of it is well worth playing. Its comparative obscurity is perhaps related to the fact that most of it is written for a 12 course lute in one of the transitional lute tunings between the renaissance viel ton and the later d minor baroque tuning. (This can be represented as: g’,e’,c’,a, e, B, A, G, F, E, D, C - with retuning of bass courses to suit the key). Perhaps because it is an instructional work, the music is unusual for its time in containing detailed information about the decorations to be used and in indicating dynamics. 

There is a modern guitar edition of this music by Shepard-Smith (2005) published by Mel Bay [which does suffer from some of the inevitable errors that creep into this type of transcription] and, more recently the UK Lute Society has published edition for both lute in renaissance tuning and 10-string guitar (Smith and Crouch 2010).

William Lawes

William Lawes (1602 - 1645) was one of four musician sons of Thomas Lawes (?1572 - 1640) an English musician and priest. William and his older brother Henry are both remembered as composers, Henry mainly for vocal music and William primarily for instrumental music (though he did write some songs). Both were associated with the English court of Charles 1st. A pupil of the lutenist and gamba player John Coprario, Lawes went on to compose for viol consort, lyra viol and keyboard, his music showing influences from early Baroque composers such as Monteverdi as well as remnants of earlier English renaissance style. Most of his output is found in manuscript form; his work was cut short by his death in the English Civil War.

John and Robert Johnson

Sylvius Leopold Weiss was a German lutenist and composer, born in Breslau [now Wroclaw] in 1686 and died in Dresden in 1750. His entry in Grove (Reilly et al. accessed 18 July 2007) describes Weiss as the greatest lutenist (performer and composer) of the late Baroque and a peer of keyboard players such as J.S. Bach and Domenico Scarlatti. He left the largest corpus of music for lute of any composer in the history of the instrument. Most of his surviving works are grouped into suites (sonatas), often with the sequence: allemande, courante, bourrée, sarabande, minuet and gigue (though substitutions for one or more of the movements are common); some begin with an unbarred prelude or a fantasia. Bach clearly had great respect for Weiss’s sonatas since he arranged no.47 as a duo for harpsichord and violin (BWV 1025).

A large proportion of Weiss's surviving music is contained in two major sources, six manuscripts in the Sächsisches Landesbibliothek in Dresden and a manuscript in the British Museum, London, though many other pieces are found scattered in a variety of other manuscript sources. Weiss is one of those composers who, in modern eyes, is overshadowed by Bach but his music is now increasingly becoming available in high quality recordings - there is an emerging series of Weiss recordings on Naxos from Robert Barto; Michel Cardin (see below) has recorded the whole of the London Manuscript and a number of other lutenists have recorded some of Weiss's work. The whole of Weiss’s work can be found in modern edition here: (as pdfs in baroque tablature and modern notation and as Django files). There is another site, with detailed information about Weiss and his music.

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